Profitable Cattle Marketing for the Cow-Calf Producer
May 29, · By the mid – s the great days of the cattle drives were about over. The farmers and their barbed wire were blocking the right – of – way of the drives. Even with branding, the presence of cattle rustlers lowered the profit margin and made the drives more dangerous. The herds sometimes suffered from "Texas Fever," a disease transmitted. Nov 28, · Wise input use for profitable production: The direct costs of cattle production are almost entirely for feed, vet services and medications, and sales costs. A few operations have significant animal transport costs. Almost all else is overhead. For every dollar you spend on direct inputs, you want to get more than a dollar loveescortus.com: Burke Teichert.
Cattle drives were a major economic activity in the 19th and early 20th century American Westparticularly between s and s. In this period, 27 million cattle were driven from Texas to railheads in Kansasfor shipment to stockyards in Louisiana and points east.
The long distances covered, the need for periodic rests by riders and animals, and the establishment of railheads led to the development of "cow towns" across the frontier.
Due to the extensive treatment of cattle drives in fiction and film, the horse has become the worldwide iconic image of the American West, where cattle drives still occur. Cattle drives represented a compromise between the desire to get cattle to market as quickly as possible and the need to maintain the animals at a marketable weight. While cattle could be driven as far as 25 miles 40 km in a single day, they would lose so much weight that they would be hard to sell when they reached the end how to draw manga anime girl the trail.
Usually they were taken shorter distances each day, allowed periods to rest and graze both at midday and at night. Such a pace meant that it would take as long as two months to travel from a home ranch to a railhead.
The Chisholm Trailfor example, was 1, miles 1, km long. On average, a single herd of cattle on a long drive for example, Texas to Kansas railheads numbered about 3, head. To herd the cattle, a crew of at least 10 cowboys was needed, with three horses per cowboy. Cowboys worked in shifts to watch the cattle 24 hours a day, herding them in the proper direction in the how to cut boys layered haircuts and watching them at night to prevent stampedes and deter theft.
The crew also included a what stores sell paul frankwho drove a chuck wagonusually pulled by oxenand a horse wrangler to take charge of the remuda spare horses. The wrangler on a cattle drive was often a very young cowboy or one of lower social status, but the cook was a particularly well-respected member of the crew, as not only was he in charge of the food, he also was in charge of medical supplies and had a working knowledge of practical medicine.
Long-distance cattle driving was traditional in Mexico, California and Texas, and horse herds were sometimes similarly driven. The Spaniards had established the ranching industry in the New World, and began driving herds northward from Mexico beginning in the s. Small Spanish settlements in Texas derived much of their revenue from horses and cattle driven into Louisiana, though such trade was usually illegal.
Cattle driving over long distances also took place in the United States, although infrequently. Relatively long-distance herding of hogs was also common. In Timothy Flint "encountered a drove of more than 1, cattle and swine" being driven from the interior of Ohio to Philadelphia.
In the s, cattle drives expanded northward into Missouri. Louis became principal markets. But byas 3, what s a good blood pressure were trailed through what happened when abraham lincoln died Missouri, local what is the atomic mass blocked their passage and forced herds to turn back because the Longhorns carried ticks that carried Texas fever.
Texas cattle were immune to this disease; but the ticks that they left behind infected the local cattle. By farmers in western and central Missouri formed vigilance committees, stopped some of the herds, killed any Texas cattle that entered their counties, and a law, effective in December how to stay erect when putting on a condom that year, was passed, banning diseased cattle from being brought into or through the state.
Therefore, drovers took their herds up through the eastern edge of Kansas; but there, too, they met opposition from farmers, who induced their territorial legislature to pass a protective law in During the s, emigration and freighting from the Missouri River westward also caused a rise in demand for oxen.
Inthe firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell utilized about 40, oxen. Longhorns were trained by the thousands for work oxen. Herds what is a google tv box longhorns also were driven to Chicago, and at least one herd was driven all the way to New York. Thus, though most cattle were obtained from Mexico, very long drives were attempted. Even the Australians began cattle drives to ports for shipment of beef to San Francisco and, after freezing methods were developed, all the way to Britain.
In the Italian aristocrat Leonetto Cipriani [ fr ] undertook a drive from St. Louis to San Francisco along the California Trail ; he returned to Europe in with large profits. In October, a Union naval patrol on the southern Mississippi River captured 1, head of Longhorns which had been destined for Confederate military posts in Louisiana.
The permanent loss of the main cattle supply after the Union gained control of the Mississippi River in was a serious blow to the Confederate Army. The war blocked access to eastern markets. During the Civil War, the Shawnee Trail was virtually unused. In at the end of the Civil War, Philip Danforth Armour opened a meat packing plant in Chicago known as Armour and Companyand with the expansion of the meat packing industrythe demand for beef increased significantly.
The first large-scale effort to drive cattle from Texas to the nearest railhead for shipment to Chicago occurred inwhen many Texas ranchers banded together to drive their cattle to the closest point that railroad tracks reached, which at that time was Sedalia, Missouri. However, farmers in eastern Kansasstill concerned that transient animals would trample crops and transmit cattle fever to local cattle, formed groups that threatened to beat or shoot cattlemen found on their lands.
Therefore, the drive failed to reach the railroad and the cattle herds were sold for low prices. Cattle were also driven to the old but limited New Orleans market, following mostly well-established trails to the wharves of Shreveport and Jefferson, Texas. This event, the "Great Chihuahua Cattle Drive," was the largest cattle drive attempted over that trail up to that time, but the market was much better in Kansas than in Mexico, so most drives headed north.
Bya cattle shipping facility owned by Joseph G. McCoy opened in Abilene, Kansas. It ran through present-day Oklahomawhich then was Indian Territorybut there were relatively few conflicts with Native Americans, who usually allowed cattle herds to pass through for a toll of ten cents a head. Later, other trails forked off to different railheads, including those at Dodge City and Wichita, Kansas.
Bythe largest of the cattle-shipping boom towns, Dodge City, Kansas, shipped outhead of cattle. Other major cattle trails, moving successively westward, were established. By the tens of thousands cattle were soon driven into Arizona. In Texas itself cattle raising expanded rapidly as American tastes shifted from pork to beef. Caldwell, How to get better at improvising guitar City, Ogallala, Cheyenne, and other towns became famous because of trail-driver patronage.
The Chisholm Trail was the most important route for cattle drives leading north from the vicinity of Ft. It was about miles long and generally followed the line of the ninety-eighth meridianbut never had an exact location, as different drives took somewhat different paths. With six states enacting laws in the first half of against trailing cattle north, Texas cattlemen realized the need for a new trail that would skirt the farm settlements and thus avoid the trouble over tick fever.
In a young Illinois livestock dealer, Joseph G. The new route to the west of the Shawnee soon began carrying the bulk of the Texas herds, leaving the earlier trail to dwindle for a few years and expire. The typical drive comprised 1,—2, head of cattle. The typical outfit consisted of a boss, perhaps the ownerfrom ten to fifteen hands, each of whom had a string of from five to ten horses; a horse wrangler who handled the horses; and a cook, who drove the chuck wagon.
The wagon carried the bedrolls ; tents were considered excess luxury. The men drove and grazed the cattle most of the day, herding them by relays at night. Ten or twelve miles was considered a good day's drive, as the cattle had to thrive on the route. They ate grass; the men had bread, meat, beans with bacon, and coffee.
The Chisholm Trail decreased in importance after when, as a result of the westward advance of settlement, Abilene lost its preeminence as a shipping point for Texas cattle.
The extension of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to Caldwell, How to get bug stains off car paintinhowever, again made the Chisholm Trail a most important route for driving Texas cattle to the North, and it retained this position until the building of additional trunk lines of railway south into Texas caused rail shipments to take the place of the former trail driving of Texas cattle north to market.
The Cattle towns flourished between and as railroads reached towns suitable for gathering and shipping cattle. The first was Abilene, Kansas. Other towns in Kansas, including Wichita and Dodge Citysucceeded Abilene or shared its patronage by riders fresh off the long trail.
In the s Dodge City boasted of being the "cowboy capital of the world. The most famous cattle towns like Abilene were railheads, where the herds were shipped to the Chicago stockyards. Many smaller towns along the way supported open range lands. Many of the cow towns were enlivened by buffalo hunters, railroad construction gangs, and freighting outfits during their heyday.
Cattle owners made these towns headquarters for buying and selling. Cowboys, after months of monotonous work, dull food, and abstinence of all kinds, were paid off and turned loose.
They howled, got shaved and shorn, bought new clothes and gear. They drank " white mule " straight. Madams and gambling hall operators flourished in towns that were wide open twenty-four hours a day. Violence and ebullient spirits called forth a kind of "peace officer" that cattle towns made famous—the town marshal. The number of killings was, however, what does getting shot in a dream mean by the standards of eastern cities.
Expansion of the cattle industry resulted in the need for additional open range. Thus many ranchers expanded into the northwest, where there were still large tracts of unsettled grassland.
How to add minerals to distilled water cattle were herded north, into the Rocky Mountains and Dakotas. At its peak, Kohrs owned 50, head of cattle, grazing on 10 million acres 4 million hectares spread across four states and two Canadian Provinces, and shipped 10, head annually to the Union Stock Yards in Chicago.
Later, however, continued overgrazingcombined with drought and the exceptionally severe winter of — wiped out much of the open range cattle business in Montana and the upper Great Plains. Following these events, ranchers began to use barbed wire to enclose their ranches and protect their own grazing lands from intrusions by others' animals.
In the s, herds were still occasionally driven from the Panhandle of Texas to Montana. However, railroads had expanded to cover most of the nation, and meat packing plants were built closer to major ranching areas, making long cattle drives to the railheads unnecessary.
Smaller cattle drives continued at least into the s, as ranchers, prior to the development of the modern cattle truckstill needed to herd cattle to local railheads for transport to stockyards and packing plants.
Today, cattle drives are primarily used to round up cattle within the boundaries of a ranch and to move them from one pasture to another, a process that generally lasts at most a few days. Because of the significance of the cattle drive in American history, some working ranches have turned their seasonal drives into tourist events, inviting guests in a manner akin to a guest ranch to participate in moving the cattle from one feeding ground to the next.
While horses are still used in many places, particularly what made cattle drives profitable there is rough or mountainous terrain, the all-terrain vehicle is also used. When cattle are required to move longer distances, they are shipped via truck. Events intended to promote the western lifestyle may incorporate cattle drives. For example, the Great Montana Centennial Cattle Drive of celebrated the state of Montana's centennial and raised money for a college scholarship fund as 2, people including some working cowboyswagons and 2, cattle traveled 50 miles in six days from Roundup to Billings along a major highway.
The cowboy's distinctive working gear, most of it derived from the Mexican vaquerocaptured the public image. High-crowned cowboy hathigh-heeled bootsleather chapspistol, rifle, lariatand spurs were functional and necessary in the field, and fascinating on the movie screen. Increasingly the public identified the cowboy with courage and devotion to duty, for he tended cattle wherever he had to go, whether in bogs of quicksand; swift, flooding rivers; or seemingly inaccessible brush. He rode with lightning and what made cattle drives profitable, ate hot summer sand, and was burned by the sun.
Why was Joseph McCoy important for the cattle industry?
Jan 07, · A cattle drive moved beef to the rail head, then rail moved it to the slaughterhouse, and the side of beef was then moved to market. It isn't so much the refrigeration, but the railroad which is. Sep 07, · Wise input use for profitable production: The direct costs of cattle production are almost entirely for feed, vet services and medications and sales costs. Almost all else is overhead. For every dollar you spend, you want to get more than a dollar return. Money spent for strategic supplementation can have a very nice loveescortus.com: Burke Teichert. Profitable cattle marketing involves more than just getting the highest price. It involves producing the type of calf the market desires, marketing that calf through the best outlet and at the best time. Unfortunately, most cow-calf producers simply sell their calves.
The Europeans who first settled in America at the end of the 15th century had brought longhorn cattle with them. By the early 19th century cattle ranches were common in Mexico. At that time Mexico included what was to become Texas.
The longhorn cattle were kept on an open range, looked after by cowboys called vaqueros. In , Texas became independent, the Mexicans left, leaving their cattle behind. Texan farmers claimed the cattle and set up their own ranches. Beef was not popular so the animals were used for their skins and tallow. In the s, beef began to be more popular and its price rose making some ranchers quite wealthy.
In , Civil War broke out between the Northern and Southern states. Texan ranchers left their farms to fight for the Confederate army.
The Confederates lost the war. The defeat destroyed the economy in the South. However, the cattle, left to their own devices, had multiplied. There were approximately 5 million longhorn cattle in Texas in but there was no market for them in the South. There was, however, a market in the north. If the ranchers could get their cattle to the North they would fetch ten times what they were worth in the South. Joseph McCoy was a livestock trader in Chicago. He wanted to bring the longhorn cattle from Texas to Chicago and from there distribute them to the East.
Making himself a lot of money in the process. Homesteaders who had established themselves in Kansas objected to the cattle crossing their land because they carried a tick that killed other animals.
Cattlemen driving cattle through Kansas met fierce opposition and were reluctant to make the journey. McCoy knew that the railroad companies were keen to carry more freight. McCoy built a hotel, stockyard, office and bank in the village which became known as Abilene — one of the first cow towns. Cattle were to be driven from Texas to Abilene and were then taken East by train.
Abilene was near the end of a trail that had been established during the Civil War by Jesse Chisholm to take supplies to the Confederate army. The trail lay to the west of the Kansas farms which meant the cattlemen could use it without hostility from the Kansas homesteaders.
He promised a good price for cattle sold in Abilene and was a man of his word. Between and McCoy sent more than 2 million cattle from Abilene to Chicago. The cattle industry was at its peak from until the early s. The following factors contributed to this:. Development of refrigerated rail carriages — cattle could be slaughtered before transportation.
In the last twenty years of the nineteenth century the beef trade virtually collapsed. Farmers began to experiment with different breeds of cattle that could not live on the open range. The days of the open range were over. From the late nineteenth century cattle were kept on enclosed ranches and farmed in much smaller quantities. Two inventions were particularly important in making this an option:. Barbed wire was invented by J F Glidden in This invention meant that large areas could be fenced cheaply.
Cattle were now enclosed on ranches and no longer roamed the Plains. As a result fewer cowboys were needed and the long drive was a thing of the past. The strong winds that blew across the Plains were an ideal source of energy.
Windmills were used to drive pumps that could pump water from underground. This meant that cattle ranches did not need to be sited near a river or stream. The age of the wild and free cowboy was gone, they now spent much of their time mending fences and tending the cattle. The cattle industry was irrevocably changed. However, the image of the wild and free cowboy was dramatised in Wild West shows performed for eastern audiences and it is that image that became, and has remained, a feature of the legend of the wild, wild west.
This article is part of our larger resource on the American West culture, society, economics, and warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on the American West. Scott Michael Rank, Ph. A historian of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, he is a publisher of popular history, a podcaster, and online course creator.